District Veterinary Office, Tamenglong
PIGGERY DEVELOPMENT SCHEME:
Piggery is one of the most profitable enterprises. There is great scope for piggery development in the North Eastern region in general and in Manipur State in particular. The people living in the north eastern region consumed mom amount of animal protein than the people living in other regions of the country. One third of the total pig population of the country lies in the north eastern region.
The main advantages of pig farming are as follows:
The pig is an efficient converters of feed into pork which has high nutritional value in human diet.
Pigs utilize the waste products like table garbage bakery waste, hotel and kitchen waste, unmarketable vegetables and fruits very efficiently.
Pig farming can be successfully combined with dairy or other agriculture activities.
Swine excels in dressing percentage yielding 65-80 percent of their live weight when dressed.
The pigs have two farrowing per year with litter of size (no. if piglets per farrowing) ranging from 8- 1 5 on an average.
GOATERY DEVELOPMENT SCHEME:
Goat is the hardiest animal ever to be domesticated by man. Goats can thrive well under zero “input system” and goatery becomes an important source of income for the sizable population comprising mainly economically and socially backward classes of our Society. Since no religious sentiment are attached with the consumption of chevon, goatery is popular all over the country andgoats are also termed as poor man's cow gold as they can be enchased by their keepers any time of the year. Being small in size, with high fertility rate, low management needs and wide acceptance of its milk and meat goatery is suitable to the poor farmers for earning subsidiary income besides using its milk and meat for home consumption.
RABBIT DEVELOPMENT SCHEME:
Rabbit farming in India is an age-old practice. This micro livestock species contributes meat, wool, fur, pelt and manure for human welfare. It has immense potential for sustainable food production for the ever-increasing human population of our country as well as of the developing world. There is tremendous scope for rural development through this profitable enterprise. Enormous potential of this species can serve the nation by income and employment generation, food security, and family nutrition, poverty elimination and socio-economic upliftment.
Distinctive advantages of rabbit farming are as follows:
· Initial investment is less as compared to other livestock practices.
· Requires less space and put no pressure on forest land and environment.
· Docile nature.
· Can be maintained even on kitchen wastes.
· Non-competitive to human being for food grain.
· High feed conversion ratio.
Poultry Development is an important sector of Animal Husbandry which gives not only self-employment to the sizeable number of people but also subsidiary income to many families of rural mass in the State. Till today production of total eggs and good percentage of poultry meat in the State is in the hands of unorganized groups of small farmers with backyard poultry. Therefore, there is need to develop the backyard poultry farming in the State by motivating the people to use the newly introduced improved variety of poultry birds which are suitable and sustainable for backyard poultry farming. Out of the total chicks produced in the State Poultry farms, some are retained and remaining chicks are distributed to the targeted beneficiaries after brooding stage for adoption of backyard poultry farming.
Through poultry development in the country has taken a quantum leap in the last three decades, the growth has been mainly restricted to commercial poultry. Rural backyard poultry, though still contributing nearly 30% to the national egg production, is the most neglected one. This is, in spite of fact that the poultry eggs and meat produced from backyard poultry farming fetch a much higher price than that from commercial poultry. Most of the poultry products and eggs are consumed in urban and semi urban areas and the rural consumption is quite low. Private poultry producers are also not able to attend to the needs of major rural consumers and to the consumers of the north-eastern states and other difficult regions. The major limiting factors in the way of increasing consumption of egg and poultry meat in the rural area arc centred at its poor availability. Most of the commerciaI poultry egg and meat production is centered in the urban and semi-urban areas. Due to the operation being of an industrial nature, the private sector is not inclined to go to the rural area, understandably reluctant to the rural poultry sector as they aim at higher and quicker profits through larger investment. The commercial poultry sector is doing business through integrated approach of contract farming using high-inputs for quicker profits. For the poorest of the poor and the landless, the major issues are food security and risk spreading through subsidiary income, which are not addressed by the private commercial sector. It is well known fact that a fairly significant proportion of the landless and marginal farmers earn their living from poultry and other small ruminants.
Backyard poultry requiring hardly any infrastructure set-up is a potent tool for upliftments poorest of the poor. Besides income generation, rural backyard poultry provides nutritional supplementation in the form of valuable animal protein and empowers women. It has also been noticed that the demand for rural backyard poultry is quite high in tribal areas.
It may also be mentioned that groups of small rural producers cater to the needs of consumers who have specific preference for colored birds and brown-shelled eggs both of which are mostly produced in the rural sector/backyard poultry. Thus, there is a need to take up specific rural poultry production programmes, to meet the requirements of the rural consumers while constituting a source for consistent income as a subsidiary occupation by taking up colored bird units ranging from 20 to 50 birds per family in their backyards. Such units require vary little hand and can give a fairly handsome return with are minimum night shelter, thus enriching small farmer and landless families through a more holistic and self-reliant approach not only in terms of improvement of income, employment and nutritional status but also in terms of fostering community development, gender empowerment and protection of environment, as envisaged on the large canvass of ‘rural development’ using poultry as a tool.
Importance of Dairy Husbandry:
India has the highest number of dairy animals but the per capita availability of milk is only about 144g per day which is far lower than the recommended level of 210g per day. Though it is known to all that milk is complete food as if can supply all nutrients essential for life. Moreover in India cattle occupy a unique position in the national economy of the country, predominantly dependent on Agriculture while female progeny supplies milk, the male progeny continues to be the principal source of draught power for agriculture and rural transport. Amongst the various milch animal the cow is the dairy animal of choice, as the environmental conditions are generally favourable for its upkeep. Also cow milk is perfect natural food. Further more through judicious cross - breeding with exotic animals, it is possible to introduce into Indian cattle the germplasm for high production, earlier sexual maturity and regular breeding resulting in substantial increase in milk production of the country.
Milk is a complete food particularly it is essential for babies, patients, old people and pregnant women. Moreover the non-vegetarian also depends largely on this milk. But it has already been pointed out earlier that India is in shortage of milk as per requirement. The production of milk is to be increased by using modern technologies of dairy husbandry.